In this way we can see today the combination and contrast of these two architectural styles and the different characteristics of the places of worship of all religions. The most characteristic feature of his image is the combination of two materials, stone and brick. Another important artistic value is the Treasury. Presentation of Alhambra of granada gregorio gomez. [14][83] Al-Razi, an Arab writer, speaks of the valuable wine-coloured marble, obtained from the mountains of the district, which was much used in embellishing the naves of the mosque. of the Great Mosque of Cordoba up until the completion of the last Islamic addition to the building. The Great Mosque of Córdoba (La Mezquita) is one of Islam’s finest legacies in Spain. The prayer hall also has a richly-decorated mihrab (niche symbolizing the direction of prayer) surrounded by an architecturally-defined maqsura (an area reserved for the emir or caliph during prayer), which date from the expansion of Caliph Al-Hakam II after 965. [12] The mihrab opens in the wall at the middle of this maqsura, while two doors flank it on either side. To carry out these works Almanzor had to expropriate the houses they occupied this area. [72] A design by Hernán Ruiz III (son of Hernán Ruiz II) was chosen, encasing the original minaret structure into a new Renaissance-style bell tower. The construction of the cathedral, therefore, runs nearly 200 years of history and architectural development, hosting both Gothic features such as Renaissance and protobarrocos. [13][14][16] At the beginning of al-Hakam's extension, the central "nave" of the mosque was highlighted with an elaborate ribbed dome (now part of the Capilla da Villaviciosa). The cloisters are today due to a remodeling of the sixteenth century carried out by Bishop Martin Fernandez de Angulo, led by architect Hernán Ruiz I. [15], The mosque-cathedral's hypostyle hall dates from the original mosque construction and originally served as its main prayer space for Muslims. The first part, patio or portico sahn houses the minaret beneath the Renaissance tower, which is the only intervention that Abd al-Rahman III was in the mosque. As proof of these events are still today some remains of the Visigoth basilica built in the first part of the construction of Abderramán I. There is the evidence of the existence of orange trees in the courtyard from the fifteenth century, but already in the XIII I still had palm trees on it. The altarpiece was designed in a Mannerist style by Alonso Matías and construction began in 1618. According to traditional accounts like that of Ibn 'Idhari, Al-Hakam II had written to the Byzantine emperor (initially Nikephoros II Phokas) in Constantinople requesting that he send him expert mosaicists for the task. See more ideas about islamic architecture, architecture, islamic art. The roof, wood is carefully preserved and renovated because that has been repeatedly threatened by termites. [16]:74, Scholars have affirmed that the style of the mosaics in this part of the mosque is heavily influenced by Byzantine mosaics, which corroborates historical accounts of the Caliph requesting expert mosaicists from the Byzantine emperor at the time, who agreed and sent him a master craftsman. Under the patio of orange trees a large cistern that provides and ensures the necessary water for the purification of Muslims before entering the mosque is located. Sort by: Top Voted. It is also recognized to be the most crucial monument in the Western Islamic world. [16] The mihrab is in in turn surrounded by a typical arrangement of radiating arch decoration and a rectangular framing or alfiz, which is also seen in the design of the earlier western mosque gate of Bab al-Wuzara (the Puerta de San Esteban today) and was likely also present around the mosque's original mihrab, now vanished. [96] Left-wing political parties have claimed that the Catholic Church does not own the building, and that it should be state property. The mosaicist trained some of the caliph's own craftsmen, who eventually became skilled enough to do the work on their own. Carlos V and Bishop Manrique agreed on the need to preserve the mosque for its great architectural value. Moreover, it is a magnificent example of architecture combining two religions, Muslim and Christian. Taking the form of a discrete chamber, and richly ornamented with carved marble and gold mosaics, the mihrab is the focal point of the mosque’s prayer hall as expanded during the reign of the second Andalusi Umayyad caliph, al-Hakam II (r. 961-76). This Umayyad Caliphate was overthrown during the Abbasid Revolution in 750 and the ruling family were nearly all killed or executed in the process. Celebrated for its harmony, balance, dra-matic use of light and decoration, and its overall unity and aesthetic sensitivity, the monument belongs to an es- [16][13] The mosque was converted to a cathedral in 1236 when Córdoba was captured by the Christian forces of Castile during the Reconquista. Before his death in 1547[69] he built the choir walls up to the windows and the gothic vaults on the south side. The mosque in Córdoba, to 23,400 m2, was the second largest in the world after that of Mecca, until in 1588 the Blue Mosque in Istanbul exceeded. [91] As in most mosque courtyards, it had fountains or water basins to help Muslims perform ritual ablutions before prayer. Further research work and archaeological excavations were carried out on the mosque structure and in the Courtyard of the Oranges by Félix Hernández between 1931 and 1936. At around the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos and the Archaeological Museum it is also located. Martin Frishman, Hasan Uddin … [92] (For example, the two coat-of-arms on the present-day cathedral's Puerta de Santa Catalina depict the tower as it appeared before its later reconstruction. It makes sense that the first place of worship for muslims, the house of the Prophet Muhammad, inspired the earliest type of mosque – the hypostyle mosque. [61], In 1236 Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile as part of an era known from the Christian perspective as the Reconquista. [72], The cathedral's main chapel (known from Spanish as the Capilla Mayor) is located at the cruciform nave and transept at the center of the building. [12]:136 This sharing arrangement of the site lasted until 785, when the Christian half was purchased by Abd al-Rahman I, who then proceeded to demolish[10][12] the church structure and build the grand mosque of Córdoba on its site. [17][74][75] The ensemble was carved mainly out of mahogany wood and features a row of 30 upper seats and a row of 23 lower seats, all intricately decorated with carvings, including a series of iconographic scenes. The Great Mosque of Cordoba is such a fascinating and timeless piece of ancient history. [72][71] The bell tower is 54 meters tall and is the tallest structure in the city. GREAT MOSQUE of Cordoba Why visit the Great Mosque? Construction lasted for over two centuries and the building was eventually completed in 987, by which point Cordoba was the most important city in the Islamic Kingdom. But in 784, on the orders of the Emir Abd al-Rahman, the church was destroyed and work began on a great mosque. [14]:22 The Arabic inscriptions in the mosaics are the first example of a major series of political-religious inscriptions inserted into Umayyad Andalusi architecture. Carved and sculpted in mahogany, representing various subjects. The courtyard has changed and expanded with the various reforms and extensions of the mosque. The Great Mosque of Cordoba was provided with the “mark of caliphal dignity,” thus having become the main focus of royal patronage (Dodds, 1992). As a result of both this pillage and the earlier pillage during the fitna, the mosque had lost almost all of its valuable furnishings. It is a master piece of architectural ingenuity having a decisive influence on the maturity of mosque architecture all over the Muslim World. The structure of the mosque is made with columns and arches of different styles on the cover supports. The crowning achievement of Islamic art in Spain is the Great Mosque of Córdoba. [14]:18), In the 10th century Abd ar-Rahman III declared a new Caliphate in al-Andalus and inaugurated the height of Andalusi power in the region. The work was finished by this team in late 970 or early 971. The architectural features of this extension have the same characteristics as those of the first phase of the mosque: combination of stone and brick and alternating segments and arcs. [13]:73[14]:17–18[16]:61 The new works, including the minaret, were completed in 958, as recorded by a surviving inscription on a marble plaque that includes the name of Abd ar-Rahman III as well as the master builder and the supervisor of works. The mosque held a place of great importance amongst the Islamic community of al-Andalus for three centuries. Modern scholars believe the minbar had wheels which allowed it to be rolled in and out of its storage chamber. The use of banded arches, spoliated columns with Corinthian capitals and hypostyles arches … The central aisle houses the tabernacle (executed by Pedro Freile de Guevara) at its base, while its upper half is occupied by a canvas of the Assumption. This is one of the reasons why the mosque, along with Cordoba’s historic center, were declared a UNESCO World Heritage site. As the mosque was built on a sloping site, a large amount of fill would have been necessary to create a level ground on which to build. The liwan, or hall of worship, running the length of the south side of the mosque, is divided into three long aisles by rows of … [16], After the collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate in Cordoba at the beginning of the 11th century, no further expansions to the mosque were carried out. Nov 8, 2020 - Explore Kimberly Prestwich's board "Islamic Architecture" on Pinterest. [31], According to traditional accounts, the present-day site of the Cathedral–Mosque of Córdoba was originally a Christian church dedicated to Saint Vincent of Saragossa,[32] which was divided and shared by Christians and Muslims after the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The successor of Abderramán I, his son Hisham I, added his first mosque minaret quadrangular. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela's captured cathedral bells. [13]:45 The work may have still been incomplete when he died in 852 and it appears to have been finished instead by his son and successor, Muhammad I (ruled 852-886). Mosque Córdoba is part of the Route of the Caliphate, which connects the cities of Granada and Córdoba across the province of Jaen, linking land that witnessed during years of conflict between Christians and Muslims. [74], View of the seats on the upper and lower rows, The upper part of the episcopal throne of the choir, featuring a life-size representation of the Ascension. The origin of the Puerta de San Esteban is unknown, although it could be between aesthetically Visigoth art and the Caliphate of Córdoba. Due to its status as a former Islamic place of worship, it is also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba (Spanish: Mezquita de Córdoba), or the Mezquita. See location on Google Maps [61], Other chapels were progressively created around the interior periphery of the building over the following centuries, many of them funerary chapels built through private patronage. This maqsura area covers three bays along the southern qibla wall in front of the mihrab, and was marked off from the rest of the mosque by an elaborate screen of intersecting horseshoe and polylobed arches; a feature which would go on to be highly influential in the subsequent development of Moorish architecture. In the early days of the Oratory arches they were open, creating a patio. Capilla de Santa Teresa, also known as a chapel or chapel of Cardinal Salazar Treasury. Also referred to as the Great Mosque of Cordoba and the Mezquita Cordoba, the structure of the building is known to be one of the most accomplished monuments of the Moorish architecture. [15] This prominent use of the Moorish-Mudéjar style for a royal funerary chapel (along with other examples like the Mudéjar Alcázar of Seville) is interpreted by modern scholars as a desire by the Christian kings to appropriate the prestige of Moorish architecture in the Iberian Peninsula, just as the Mosque of Cordoba was itself a powerful symbol of the former Umayyad Caliphate's political and cultural power which the Castilians were eager to appropriate. Finally, the figure of San Rafael there on the tower is the work of sculptors Bernabe Gomez del Rio and Pedro de la Paz. The prayer hall was expanded into eight sections commanded by Rahman II (822). [97][98][99] These battles over the cathedral reflect the contested view of what constitutes Spanish history and Spanish identity. The cause of this is probably the configuration of the sandy banks of the River Guadalquivir. Fernandez-Puertas, Antonio, “Spain and North Africa”, The Mosque, History, Architectural Development and Regional Diversity, ed. The archbishop of Toledo, Don Raimundo, accompanied by the king, led a mass inside the mosque to "consecrate" the building. This triplet of windows was repeated on the level above, and above this – just below the summit of the main shaft – was a row of nine smaller windows of equivalent shape and decoration. A French architect, Baltasar Dreveton, was charged with restoring and repairing the structure over a period of 8 years. [17][63] The nave originally had a series of Byzantine-Italian style frescoes by Alonso Martinez depicting saints and kings, but only one of these frescoes has been preserved to the present day and is being kept at the Museum of Fine Arts in Cordoba. During his own reign, starting in 961, he further expanded the mosque's prayer hall. Even now, it still holds an important place in the hearts of many. This solution would subsequently called Caliphate vault ribs, and would be used later in the Mudejar style. [88][16]:73[13]:84 Scholars have argued that this use of Byzantine mosaics is also part of a general desire – whether conscious or not – by the Cordoban Umayyads to evoke connections to the early Umayyad Caliphate in the Middle East, in particular to the Great Umayyad Mosque of Damascus, where Byzantine mosaics were a prominent element of the decoration. Under Almoravid rule, the artisan workshops of Cordoba were commissioned to design new richly-crafted minbars for the most important mosques of Morocco – most famously the Minbar of Ali Ibn Yusuf commissioned in 1137 – which were likely inspired by the model of Al-Hakam II's minbar in the Great Mosque. Abd-Allah built a secret passage, or sabbath, which connects the mihrab in Alcázar de Córdoba. Later came the construction of galleries Abderramán I and the minaret and ablutions hall of Hisham I. [62], In 1146 the Christian army of King Alfonso Vll of Léon and Castile briefly occupied Cordoba. Faced with the danger of collapse are all better cemented by the end of the century. His plans were followed by Juan Sequero de Matilla who finished the tower after him. Currently the minaret is inside the Christian bell tower, and although no longer can see their appearance, the drawings and by the testimony left by the relief of the spandrels of the Puerta de Santa Catalina is known. Examining the exteriors of each structure, you will immediately see some architectural differences. The middle dome, in front of the mihrab, is especially elaborate and is also covered by mosaic decoration, including an inscription around its center which includes verses from the Qur'an (Surah 22: 77-78). The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba, whose ecclesiastical name is the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption, is the Catholic cathedral of the Diocese of Córdoba dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and … The mihrab is octagonal and is closed by a dome-shaped shell. The altarpiece, finished in the seventeenth century, is marble. The Gothic-style vault over the main altar is carved with images of musical angels, saints, apostles, and an image of Emperor Charles V (Carlos V), with an image of Mary at the center. The orientation of the mosque is particularly oriented to the south rather than towards Mecca, as occurs in the mosque of Damascus. [16]:78 The new eastern wall of the mosque featured ten richly-decorated exterior portals, similar to the ones on the mosque's western side, which were heavily restored in the 20th century. [40][41] According to Susana Calvo Capilla, a specialist on the history of the mosque–cathedral, although remains of multiple church-like buildings have been located on the territory of the mosque–cathedral complex, no clear archaeological evidence has been found of where either the church of St. Vincent or the first mosque were located on the site, and the latter may have been a newly constructed building. There is also beveled tiles. Damaged after a storm, it was arranged by the Cathedral Chapter in 1593. [63][61] The area of the mosque's mihrab and maqsura, along the south wall, was converted into the Chapel of San Pedro and was reportedly where the host was stored. London and New York: Penguin, 1987. The minaret is another Islamic form that found many applications in other places, from bell towers in Europe to skyscrapers in the 20th century. Gold tesserae (small pieces of glass with gold and color backing) create a dazzling combination of dark blues, reddish browns, yellows and golds that form intricate calligraphic bands and vegetal motifs that adorn the arch. The mosque of córdoba Gines García. The most impressive is certainly its Moorish architecture, one of the most beautiful examples of this art in Spain. What it is known is that it took its final shape under the leadership of Mohamed I. Al-Mundhir up the treasury, from which its final location is unknown. A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals, 2nd ed. [72][71] The dome at the summit is topped by a sculpture of Saint Raphael which was added in 1664 by architect Gaspar de la Peña, who had been hired to perform other repairs and fix structural problems. Temple/Church/Mosque/Church. History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes, "Web Oficial del Conjunto Monumental Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "History of the Mosque Cathedral of Cordoba", "The history | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "The Great Mosque of Córdoba in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries", "A Brief History of the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba", "Cordoba's Hymn to Islam (Published 1989)", "The Reconquista of the Mosque of Córdoba", "Las primeras mezquitas de al-Andalus a través de las fuentes árabes", "Córdoba's Mosque-Cathedral dispute puts Spanish identity at centre stage", "Patio de los Naranjos | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Villaviciosa Chapel | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Capilla de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción", "Royal Chapel | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Main Chapel, Transept and Choir | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Los Hernán Ruiz, saga de arquitectos: Hernán Ruiz I, el Viejo", "Bell Tower | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Belfry Tower of the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba", "Main Altarpiece | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Choir stalls | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Choir stalls of the Mosque-Cathedral Córdoba", "Conservation | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Courtyard of the Orange trees of Viana Palace, Córdoba", "Main Altar of the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba", "Pope asked to let Muslims pray in cathedral", "Córdoba controversy: Historic Mosque-Cathedral mired in cultural dispute", "Córdoba rejects Catholic church's claim to own mosque-cathedral", "Spanish Church accuses Qatar of meddling in bitter fight over Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba", "Patrimonio cultural en disputa: la Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", Mezquita (Great Mosque) of Córdoba at Google Maps, The Mosque of Cordova (during early 19th century), The Great Mosque of Cordoba in the tenth century, General information about the mosque and opening hours, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mosque–Cathedral_of_Córdoba&oldid=996194141, Buildings and structures in Córdoba, Spain, Roman Catholic churches in Córdoba, Spain, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Bien de Interés Cultural landmarks in the Province of Córdoba (Spain), Religious buildings and structures converted into mosques, Buildings converted to Catholic church buildings, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 16th century (last major addition as cathedral), Capilla de Nuestra Señora de las Nieves y San Vicente Mártir, Capilla de los Santos Simón y Judas de la Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba, Capilla de la Concepción de Salizanes o del Santísimo Sacramento, Capilla de San Marcos, Santa Ana y San Juan Bautista, Capilla de San Mateo y Limpia Concepción de Nuestra Señora, Capilla de Santa Marina, de San Matías y del Baptisterio, Capilla de la Natividad de Nuestra Señora, Capilla de Nuestra Señora del Mayor Dolor, Capilla de las Benditas Ánimas del Purgatorio, Capilla de Santa Francisca Romana y Santa Úrsula, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 02:01. For other uses, see, Later Islamic history of the mosque (11th-12th centuries), Modern restorations (19th-21st centuries). Alhambra Palace and The Great Mosque of Cordoba Eraz. The sculpture was made by Pedro de la Paz and Bernabé Gómez del Río. The Horseshoe Arch. The mosque’s most-photographed aspect is its vast main hall, which is supported by over 850 double-arched columns. The shafts of pink and blue marble are alternated. Khoury, Nuha. Edited by Gregory Castillo. Besides cultural and political contacts with Byzantium, the great capital of the eastern caliphate multiplied. After the Capilla del Cardenal Salazar is the cathedral collection, formed by pieces of ivory and silver made between the fifteenth and twentieth centuries. New York: Springer, 2011, pp. [72] Construction began in 1593[17] but eventually stalled due to resources being spent instead on the construction of the new cathedral nave and transept happening at the same time. [14][15] The nave is dated to 1489 and its construction was overseen by Bishop Íñigo Manrique. Islamic Art guestfaf7. [17][74] Work on the choir stalls finished in 1757, though Duque Cornejo – who had worked on it continuously for nearly a decade – died just two weeks before the finished choir was officially opened. [83][13] It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. Some of them were kept on payroll by the church but many of them worked as part of their fulfilment of a "labor tax" on Muslim craftsmen (later extended to Muslims of all professions) which required them to work two days a year on the cathedral building. New York: Cambridge University Press, 161. [14][15], In the late 15th century a more significant modification was carried out to the Villaviciosa Chapel, where a new nave in Gothic style was created by clearing some of the mosque arches on the east side of the chapel and adding Gothic arches and vaulting. It is a master piece of architectural ingenuity having a decisive influence on the maturity of mosque architecture all over the Muslim World. The original mosque's most famous architectural innovation, which was preserved and repeated in all subsequent Muslim-era expansions, was its rows of double-tiered arches. New Ed ed. The following The space was then shared by Christians and Muslims, until Rahman I bought the whole site, destroying the existing building and building the first Mezquita Alhama, or main mosque in the city. Taking the form of a discrete chamber, and richly ornamented with carved marble and gold mosaics, the mihrab is the focal point of the mosque’s prayer hall as expanded during the reign of the second Andalusi Umayyad caliph, al-Hakam II (r. 961-76). As part of his various construction projects, he reworked and enlarged the courtyard of the Great Mosque and built its first true minaret (a tower from which the call to prayer was issued) starting in 951-952. The Literature of Al-Andalus (The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature). The mosque held a place of great importance amongst the Islamic community of al-Andalus for three centuries. [61] It is likely that the mosque's minbar was also restored at this time, since it is known to have survived long afterwards up to the 16th century. [17] He also worked on the mosque building's eastern section (the extension added by Al-Mansur) by adding gothic vaulting to the mosque naves in this area. The two aisles on the side contain four more canvases depicting four martyrs: Saint Acisclus and Saint Victoria on the bottom halves and Saint Pelagius and Saint Flora in the upper halves. [57] Many modern scholars affirm that the courtyard was provided with an enveloping gallery at this time and that its design involved an alternation between piers and columns (similar to its current appearance). [33][11] The historicity of this narrative has been challenged,[10] as archaeological evidence is scant, and the narrative is not corroborated by contemporary accounts of the events following Abd al-Rahman I's initial arrival in al-Andalus. [13]:44[16]:20[37], The original mosque had a roughly square floor plan measuring 74 or 79 square meters per side,[13]:40[16] equally divided between a hypostyle prayer hall to the south and an open courtyard (sahn) to the north. Mosque of cordoba final lfloris1. 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