In such a scenario, the oceans would freeze solid within several million years, leaving only a few pockets of liquid water about 14 km (8.7 mi) underground. Outputs for Department of Earth System Science and Environmental Technologies (DTA), CNR .  Likewise, in three billion years the Sun is expected to be 33% more luminous. earth, is closed, apart from odd meteorite - all matter have now is the matter we are going to have and is recycled. These changes can influence the planetary climate. If Earth is not destroyed by the expanding red giant Sun and the Earth is not ejected from the Solar System by violent relaxation, the ultimate fate of the planet will be that it collides with the black dwarf Sun due to the decay of its orbit via gravitational radiation, in 1020 (Short Scale: 100 quintillion, Long Scale: 100 trillion) years. Because the outputs can be the results of an individual … ", "Earth and Moon May Be on Long-Term Collision Course", "Time Without End: Physics and Biology in an Open Universe", "Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales", Safety of high-energy particle collision experiments, Existential risk from artificial intelligence, Self-Indication Assumption Doomsday argument rebuttal, Self-referencing doomsday argument rebuttal, List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events, List of apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Future_of_Earth&oldid=995768546, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 20:09. The total luminosity will steadily increase over the following billion years until it reaches 2,730 times the Sun's current luminosity at the age of 12.167 billion years. A number of potential Gaian feedback mechanisms have been proposed—such as the CLAW hypothesis—but the hypothesis does not have universal support within the scientific community, though it remains an active research topic. This marks the end of the Sun's main sequence lifetime, and thereafter it will pass through the subgiant stage and evolve into a red giant. Ice ages may occur because of changes in ocean circulation and continentality induced by plate tectonics. But, as stated above, without surface water, plate tectonics would probably come to a halt and most of the carbonates would remain securely buried until the Sun becomes a red giant and its increased luminosity heats the rock to the point of releasing the carbon dioxide.  Some microbes are capable of photosynthesis at concentrations of carbon dioxide as low as 1 part per million, so these life forms would probably disappear only because of rising temperatures and the loss of the biosphere. , One billion years from now, about 27% of the modern ocean will have been subducted into the mantle. , The incremental effect of gravitational perturbations between the planets causes the inner Solar System as a whole to behave chaotically over long time periods. , A supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a star. , As this scenario continues, by 100 million years from the present, the continental spreading will have reached its maximum extent and the continents will then begin to coalesce.  In their scenario, 50 million years from now the Mediterranean Sea may vanish, and the collision between Europe and Africa will create a long mountain range extending to the current location of the Persian Gulf. Without a functioning dynamo, the magnetic field of the Earth will decay in a geologically short time period of roughly 10,000 years. , The consequences of a persistent biotic crisis have been predicted to last for at least five million years. This could occur if natural processes were to remove the nitrogen from the atmosphere. , The growth of the inner core may be expected to consume most of the outer core by some 3–4 billion years from now, resulting in a nearly solid core composed of iron and other heavy elements. , As the understanding of geodynamics improves, these models will be subject to revision. Earth is among the third type, a closed system in which solar radiation comes into the Earth's atmosphere and onto the planet itself, but matter does not leave the Earth. These periods are caused by the variations in eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earth's orbit. , The luminosity of the Sun will steadily increase, resulting in a rise in the solar radiation reaching the Earth. More than a third of the land surface has been modified by human actions, and humans use about 20% of global primary production. The Earth emits around 400 #W# / #m^2#, to which 340 #W# / #m^2# is reflected back through greenhouse gases, the rest escaped through radiation. Continental drift is facilitated by two factors: the energy generation within the planet and the presence of a hydrosphere. , The first scientist to extrapolate the current motions of the continents was Canadian geologist Paul F. Hoffman of Harvard University. Climatology and climate change have been central to Earth System science since its inception, as evidenced by the prominent place given to climate change in the early NASA reports discussed above. Developed initially by James Lovelock, the hypothesis attempts to account for key features of the Earth system, including the long period (several billion years) of relatively favourable climatic conditions against a backdrop of steadily increasing solar radiation.  However, the increasingly extreme conditions will likely lead to the extinction of the prokaryotes between 1.6 billion years and 2.8 billion years from now, with the last of them living in residual ponds of water at high latitudes and heights or in caverns with trapped ice. The atmosphere will become a "moist greenhouse" leading to a runaway evaporation of the oceans. Drag from the chromosphere of the Sun would also reduce the Earth's orbit. The Earth can be seen as a closed system: input=solar radiation (Sun energy or light), output=heat energy. Within the context of systems theory, the inputs are what are put into a system and the outputs are the results obtained after running an entire process or just a small part of a process. The net result would be a loss of the world's seawater by about 1.1 billion years from the present.  Over the next two billion years, there will be about 20 supernova explosions and one gamma ray burst that will have a significant impact on the planet's biosphere. It is likely to expand to swallow both Mercury and Venus, reaching a maximum radius of 1.2 AU (180,000,000 km). It seeks a deeper understanding of the physical, chemical, biological and human interactions that determine the past, current and future states of the Earth. Many signal processing, communications, and controls systems are dynamic. Grounding for signal integrity on PCBs is a detailed subject that cannot be covered in this venue, however.  Currently, C4 plants represent about 5% of Earth's plant biomass and 1% of its known plant species. The biological and geological future of Earth can be extrapolated based upon the estimated effects of several long-term influences. Work is the energy interaction between a system and its surroundings. Friction effects—between the core and mantle and between the atmosphere and surface—can dissipate the Earth's rotational energy. The planet could remain at an obliquity of 60° to 90° for periods as long as 10 million years. , The tidal acceleration of the Moon slows the rotation rate of the Earth and increases the Earth-Moon distance. No it will never happen because "Energy can neither be created nor destroyed" There is no system whose efficiency can be more than 100%. No new species of existing large vertebrates are likely to arise and food chains will probably be shortened. Input of matter, in the form of meteors and cosmic dust, is ordinarily not great, although major impacts from planetoids occur every 100 million years or so. All of these changes can result in more rapid biological evolution as new niches emerge..  The most probable fate of the planet is absorption by the Sun in about 7.5 billion years, after the star has entered the red giant phase and expanded beyond the planet's current orbit. Once the orbit of the Moon closes to a distance of 18,470 km (11,480 mi), it will cross the Earth's Roche limit. It is also a system where human impacts have been growing rapidly in recent decades, lending immense importance to the successful development and advancement of Earth System science research. If natural processes were to remove the nitrogen from the Sun first became a main sequence star, it only... Chemical processes, at present, the solar atmosphere may cause the orbit of orbiting... 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